|Contributions||International Lead Zinc Research Organization., International Conference on Organolead Chemistry and Its Applications, (1st : 1967 : U.S. Army Natick Laboratories, (Mass))|
1. Introduction. To deter the undesirable colonization of artificial structures by marine organisms, which is referred to as biofouling, it is in common use to coat the submerged surfaces with antifouling paint incorporating biocidal compounds and releasing them at a controlled rate [1,2].With increasing public awareness and concern for environmental protection, it is generally recognized that Cited by: Increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of toxic components in antifouling coatings has raised interest in the potential for nontoxic alternatives. This book examines how marine organisms from bacteria to invertebrates and plants use chemicals to communicate and defend themselves. Chemicals. Recent cases of organolead poisonings, and the discovery of organolead compounds present in brains of people, have questioned the safety of organolead as a gasoline additive. As a result the authors were asked by the Swedish Environmental Protestion Agency to prepare a Cited by: Chemicals that prevent colonisation of living surfaces are particularly pertinent to antifouling technology and may inspire new solutions. The challenge is to identify such compounds, identify the means for sustainable production and incorporate them into coatings to give long-term antifouling efficacy.
Organoleads (e.g., tetraethyllead, tetramethyllead) are synthetic compounds used as agents in fuels and engines. Within aquatic ecosystems, these compounds may be degraded into inorganic lead through biological and chemical processes in both the environment (Abadin and Pohl, ) and fish tissues (Wong et al., ). formulation and purchase of antifouling paints. The following charges incurred by an 18,ton passenger liner, docked during in the San Francisco Bay area, show that the paint costs were less than one-third the total expense (10). Dock Charges $1, Labor of Cleaning and Painting 1, In: Grandjean P (ed), Biological effects of organolead compounds, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p Google Scholar Aldridge WN () Effects on mitochondria and other enzyme systems. The discovery in of the exceptional effectiveness of tetraethyllead in suppressing knock in the combustion of gasoline in engines and its introduction as a gasoline additive in stimulated an enormous number of studies on procedures for its synthesis and industrial production, on its behavior and uses, and also on the toxicology of this compound and on its environmental impact.
Anti-fouling paint - a category of commercially available underwater hull paints (also known as bottom paints) - is a specialized category of coatings applied as the outer (outboard) layer to the hull of a ship or boat, to slow the growth and/or facilitate detachment of subaquatic organisms that attach to the hull and can affect a vessel's performance and durability (see also biofouling). In the late 60's organotin compounds replaced the traditional copper-containing antifouling paints, because of its excellent antifouling properties. Tributyl tin (TBT) is the most used organotin compound but also triphenyl tin (TPT) is used. The amount of organotin compounds in paints is normally about %. Organotin and organolead compounds Organotin compounds are used in antifouling agents, such as on ships and wood preservative. They are also added to PVC to prevent being degraded by the atmosphere. Halide derivatives, R 3 SnX, often contain Sn-X . These paints slowly leach out organotin compounds which act as biocides against individual marine organisms. As a result, the IMO has adopted the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships (). This Convention, which came into force in September , prohibits ship owners using any TBT compound paints.